Bunda Maria

Maria bertempat tinggal di Nazareth di Galilea, kemungkinan bersama dengan kedua orang tuanya, dan sementara itu telah dipertunangkan dengan Yusuf dari Keluarga Daud. Para Apologis Kristen kadang-kadang menduga bahwa Maria, sebagaimana Yusuf, juga adalah seorang keturunan Raja Daud. Selama masa pertunangan mereka – yakni tahap pertama dalam pernikahan Yahudi; selama masa tersebut, pasangan yang dipertunangkan tidak diperbolehkan sama sekali untuk berduaan saja di bawah satu atap, meskipun sudah sah disebut suami isteri – Malaikat Gabriel mewartakan kepadanya bahwa dia akan menjadi ibu dari Mesias yang dijanjikan itu dengan cara mengandungnya melalui Roh Kudus. Ketika Yusuf diberitahukan mengenai kehamilan Maria dalam sebuah mimpi oleh “seorang malaikat Tuhan”, dia terkejut; namun malaikat itu berpesan agar Yusuf tidak gentar dan mengambil Maria sebagai isterinya. Yusuf mematuhinya dengan secara resmi melengkapi ritus pernikahan itu .

Karena malaikat telah memberitahukan Maria bahwa Elizabet, yang sebelumnya mandul, kini secara ajaib telah mengandung, Maria lalu segera mengunjungi kerabatnya itu, yang tinggal bersama suaminya Zakaria di sebuah kota Yudea “di daerah perbukitan” (kemungkinan di Yuttah, bersebelahan dengan Maon, sekitar 160 km dari Nazareth). Begitu Maria tiba dan menyalami Elizabet, Elizabet dengan segera menyatakan Maria sebagai “ibu dari Tuhannya”, dan meberinya sebuah kidung ungkapan syukur yang umum dikenal sebagai Magnificat. Tiga bulan sesudahnya, tampaknya sebelum kelahiran Yohanes Pembaptis, Maria pulang ke rumahnya. Ketika kehamilan Maria sendiri makin membesar, tiba sebuah dekrit dari kaisar Romawi Augustus yang menitahkan agar Yusuf dan sanak keluarganya pergi ke Betlehem, sekitar 80 atau 90 mil (kurang lebih 130 km) dari Nazareth, untuk mengikuti sensus. Ketika mereka berada di Betlehem, Maria melahirkan putera sulungnya; namun karena tidak ada tempat bagi mereka di penginapan (tempat bernaung yang disediakan bagi orang-orang asing, dia harus menggunakan sebuah palungan, atau tempat makan hewan, sebagai buaian bayi.

Sesudah delapan hari, anak itu disunat dan dinamai Yesus, menurut instruksi yang diberikan oleh “malaikat Tuhan” kepada Yusuf setelah Maria menerima anunsiasi, karena nama ini menunjukkan bahwa “dia [akan] menyelamatkan umatnya dari dosa-dosa mereka”. Upacara-upacara tradisional tersebut dilanjutkan dengan penyerahan Yesus kepada Tuhan di Bait Allah di Yerusalem sesuai dengan aturan hukum bagi anak-anak sulung, kemudian kunjungan orang-orang majus, pengungsian keluarga itu ke Mesir, kembalinya mereka dari sana setelah mangkatnya Raja Herodes Agung sekitar tahun 2 atau 1 Sebelum Masehi, dan menetap di Nazareth (Matius 2). Maria tampaknya menetap di Nazareth selama kira-kira tiga puluh tahunan tanpa peristiwa-peristiwa istimewa. Dia terlibat dalam satu-satunya peristiwa di awal kedewasaan Yesus yang tercatat dalam Perjanjian Baru: pada usia dua belas tahun, Yesus terpisah dari orang tuanya dalam perjalanan pulang mereka dari perayaan Paskah di Yerusalem lalu ditemukan di tengah para guru di Bait Allah. Kemungkinan besar antara peristiwa tersebut sampai dengan permulaan tampilnya Yesus ke depan umum, Maria menjadi janda, karena Yusuf tidak disebut-sebut lagi.

Setelah Yesus dibaptis oleh Yohanes Pembaptis dan dicobai oleh iblis di padang gurun, Maria hadir ketika Yesus mengerjakan mujizat pertamaNya di hadapan umum pada pesta pernikahan di Kana dengan mengubah air menjadi anggur berkat perantaraan Maria. Selanjutnya dalam beberapa peristiwa Maria hadir bersama “saudara-saudara” (Yakobus, Yusuf, Simon dan Yudas) serta “saudari-saudari” Yesus yang tidak disebutkan nama-namanya. Maria juga dilukiskan hadir pada peristiwa penyaliban Yesus, berdiri di dekat “murid yang dikasihi Yesus” bersama saudarinya Maria Klopas (kemungkinan besar Maria Klopas adalah orang yang sama dengan Maria ibu Yakobus muda dan Yusuf yang disebutkan dalam, serta Maria Magdalena. Pada daftar itu Matius 27:55 menambahkan “ibu anak-anak Zebedeus”, yang diduga bernama Salome yang disebut-sebut dalam Markus 15:40, serta wanita-wanita lain yang telah mengikuti Yesus dari Galilea dan melayaniNya (disebutkan dalam Injil Matius dan Markus). Maria, menggendong jenazah puteranya, meskipun tidak tertulis dalam injil, merupakan motif yang umum dalam seni, yang disebut “pietà” atau “kesalehan”.

Menurut Kisah Para Rasul, sesudah kenaikan Yesus ke surga, kurang-lebih 120 jiwa berkumpul di Kamar Atas pada peristiwa terpilihnya Matias untuk mengisi posisi Rasul yang ditinggalkan Yudas Iskariot, di mana Maria adalah satu-satunya orang yang disebutkan namanya selain ke-12 rasul serta para kandidat. Sejak peristiwa ini, namanya menghilang dari Alkitab, meskipun beberapa golongan Kristiani yang meyakini bahwa Maria sekali lagi digambarkan sebagai Wanita surgawi dalam Wahyu.

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